Simple analytical methods are needed for determining the cadmium (Cd) content of brown rice samples. In the present study, we developed a new analytical procedure consisting of the digestion of rice using HCl, Cd purification using anion exchange resin, and then determining the Cd content using fluorescence spectroscopy. Digestion with 0.1 M HCl for 10 min at room temperature was sufficient to extract Cd from the ground rice samples. The Cd in the extract was successfully purified in preference to other metals using Dowex 1X8 chloride form resin. Low concentrations of Cd in the eluate could be determined using fluorescence spectroscopy with a fluoroionophore. Overall, the actual limit of quantification value for the Cd content in rice was about 0.1 mg-Cd/kg-rice, which was sufficiently low compared with the regulatory value (0.4 mg-Cd/kg-rice) given by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. We analyzed authentic brown rice samples using our new analytical procedure and the results agreed well with those determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Since the fluoroionophore recognized Zn2+ and Hg2+ as well as Cd2+, a sample containing high concentration of Zn2+ or Hg2+ might cause a false positive result.
Keywords: cadmium; fluorescence spectroscopy; pretreatment; rice; simple analytical method.