Trends in Drug Resistance Prevalence, HIV-1 Variants and Clinical Status in HIV-1-infected Pediatric Population in Madrid: 1993 to 2015 Analysis

Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2018 Mar;37(3):e48-e57. doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000001760.


Background: The expanded use of long-term antiretroviral treatments in infected children may exacerbate the problem of drug resistance mutations selection, which can compromise treatment efficiency.

Objective: We describe the temporal trends of HIV drug resistance mutations and the HIV-1 variants during 23 years (1993 to March 2016) in the Madrid cohort of HIV-infected children and adolescents.

Methods: We selected patients with at least one available HIV-1 pol sequence/genotypic resistance profile, establishing different groups according to the sampling year of first resistance data. We determined the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance mutations or acquired drug resistance mutations (DRM), the drug susceptibility among resistant viruses and HIV-1 variants characterized by phylogeny across time.

Results: A total of 245 pediatric patients were selected, being mainly female, Spanish native, perinatally infected and carrying HIV-1 subtype B. At first sampling, most pediatric patients were on antiretroviral therapy and heavily pretreated. During 1993 to 2016, transmitted drug resistance mutations was found in 13 (26%) of 50 naive children [non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI), 14.6%; nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI), 10.4%; protease inhibitors, 8.7%]. DRM appeared in 139 (73.2%) of 190 pretreated patients (NRTI, 64.5%; NNRTI, 36%; protease inhibitors, 35.1%). DRM to NNRTI was higher in last 5 years. Non-B variants infected 14.5% of children and adolescents of the Madrid Cohort, being mainly intersubtype recombinants (76.5%), including complex unique recombinant strains. They caused 3.4% infections before 2000, rising to 85.7% during 2011 to 2016.

Conclusions: Periodic surveillance resistance and molecular epidemiology studies in long-term pretreated HIV-infected pediatric populations are required to optimize treatment regimens. Results will permit a better understanding of long-time dynamics of viral resistance and HIV-1 variants in Spain.

Publication types

  • Historical Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Anti-HIV Agents / pharmacology
  • Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use
  • Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
  • CD4 Lymphocyte Count
  • Drug Resistance, Viral*
  • Genetic Variation*
  • Genotype
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy
  • HIV Infections / epidemiology*
  • HIV Infections / history
  • HIV Infections / virology*
  • HIV-1 / drug effects*
  • HIV-1 / genetics*
  • History, 20th Century
  • History, 21st Century
  • Humans
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Mutation
  • Phylogeny
  • Prevalence
  • Public Health Surveillance
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Spain / epidemiology
  • Viral Load
  • pol Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus


  • Anti-HIV Agents
  • pol Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus