Prognostic relevance of genetic alterations in diffuse lower-grade gliomas

Neuro Oncol. 2018 Jan 10;20(1):66-77. doi: 10.1093/neuonc/nox132.


Background: Diffuse lower-grade gliomas (LGGs) are genetically classified into 3 distinct subtypes based on isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation status and codeletion of chromosome 1p and 19q (1p/19q). However, the subtype-specific effects of additional genetic lesions on survival are largely unknown.

Methods: Using Cox proportional hazards regression modeling, we investigated the subtype-specific effects of genetic alterations and clinicopathological factors on survival in each LGG subtype, in a Japanese cohort of LGG cases fully genotyped for driver mutations and copy number variations associated with LGGs (n = 308). The results were validated using a dataset from 414 LGG cases available from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA).

Results: In Oligodendroglioma, IDH-mutant and 1p/19q codeleted, NOTCH1 mutations (P = 0.0041) and incomplete resection (P = 0.0019) were significantly associated with shorter survival. In Astrocytoma, IDH-mutant, PIK3R1 mutations (P = 0.0014) and altered retinoblastoma pathway genes (RB1, CDKN2A, and CDK4) (P = 0.013) were independent predictors of poor survival. In IDH-wildtype LGGs, co-occurrence of 7p gain, 10q loss, mutation in the TERT promoter (P = 0.024), and grade III histology (P < 0.0001) independently predicted poor survival. IDH-wildtype LGGs without any of these factors were diagnosed at a younger age (P = 0.042), and were less likely to have genetic lesions characteristic of glioblastoma, in comparison with other IDH-wildtype LGGs, suggesting that they likely represented biologically different subtypes. These results were largely confirmed in the cohort of TCGA.

Conclusions: Subtype-specific genetic lesions can be used to stratify patients within each LGG subtype. enabling better prognostication and management.

Keywords: diffuse lower-grade glioma; genetic alteration; prognostic factor.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Brain Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Brain Neoplasms / pathology
  • Cohort Studies
  • DNA Copy Number Variations / genetics*
  • Female
  • Glioma / diagnosis
  • Glioma / genetics*
  • Glioma / pathology
  • Humans
  • Isocitrate Dehydrogenase / genetics
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mutation / genetics*
  • Neoplasm Grading* / methods
  • Prognosis


  • Isocitrate Dehydrogenase