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. 2017 Oct 10;17(1):797.
doi: 10.1186/s12889-017-4802-x.

The Association Between Smoking and Blood Pressure in Men: A Cross-Sectional Study

Free PMC article

The Association Between Smoking and Blood Pressure in Men: A Cross-Sectional Study

Guoju Li et al. BMC Public Health. .
Free PMC article


Background: Cigarette smoking is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the association between smoking and blood pressure is unclear. Thus, the current study examined the association between cigarette smoking and blood pressure in men.

Methods: Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP) were examined using digital blood pressure measuring device, and smoking status was determined with China National Health Survey.

Results: The ANCOVA showed that the adjusted DBP and MAP were lower in current smokers versus nonsmokers and the adjusted SBP was lower in current smokers versus former smokers (P < 0.05). Additionally, the adjusted PP tend to be decreased steadily as the pack·years increased in current smokers. In a fully adjusted logistic regression model, former smokers had increased ORs (95% CI) of 1.48 (1.01, 2.18) of hypertension and current smokers had not increased ORs (95% CI) of 0.83 (0.61, 1.12), compared with never smokers.

Conclusions: The findings revealed that the adjusted blood pressure were lower in current smokers versus nonsmokers and former smokers. No significant dose-dependent effect of current smoking on blood pressure indices except PP was observed. Smoking cessation was significantly associated with an increased risk of hypertension. However, current smoking was not a risk factor of hypertension.

Keywords: Blood pressure; Hypertension; Smoking; Tobacco.

Conflict of interest statement

Ethics approval and consent to participate

The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Institute of Basic Medical Sciences of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (028–2013), and all participants written informed consent. The study was performed in accordance with approved national guidelines.

Consent for publication

All authors made significant contributions to the manuscript and all authors have read and approved the final version as well as agreed with the publishment on BMC Public Health.

Competing interests

The authors declared that they have no competing interests.

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.


Fig. 1
Fig. 1
Comparison of the unadjusted and adjusted mean SBP, DBP, MAP, and PP by quartiles of pack·years of current smokers. The subjects who were taking anti-hypertensive therapy were excluded. Age, BMI, alcohol drinking and ethnicity were adjusted. Data are presented as means with 95% confidence intervals (error bars)

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