Complete Nucleotide Sequence and Genetic Organization of the Bacteriocinogenic Plasmid, pIP404, From Clostridium Perfringens

Plasmid. 1988 Mar;19(2):134-50. doi: 10.1016/0147-619x(88)90052-2.


The complete nucleotide sequence of the bacteriocinogenic plasmid, pIP404, from Clostridium perfringens has been determined. The plasmid genome comprises 10,207 bp and has a dA + dT content of 75%. Functions have been tentatively assigned to 6 of the 10 open reading frames and an origin-like region of repeated sequence identified. The codon usage of this extremely dA + dT rich plasmid is highly unusual and displays a pronounced preference for codons with the lowest dG + dC content. Only one of the genes from pIP404 was expressed at a significant level in Escherichia coli, suggesting that the atypical codon usage could represent a major obstacle to heterologous gene expression.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Base Sequence
  • Clostridium perfringens / genetics*
  • Codon
  • Genes, Bacterial
  • Genes, Regulator
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Plasmids*
  • Protein Biosynthesis
  • Transcription, Genetic


  • Codon

Associated data

  • GENBANK/J03309