Institutional Experience with Ostomies Created During Cytoreductive Surgery and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemoperfusion

Ann Surg Oncol. 2017 Dec;24(13):3811-3817. doi: 10.1245/s10434-017-6114-x. Epub 2017 Oct 10.


Background: Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion (CRS-HIPEC) is a complex procedure that often requires ostomy creation to protect high-risk anastomoses. This study aimed to evaluate the authors' institutional experience with CRS-HIPEC-associated ostomies, determine predictors of ostomy creation and reversal, and assess their impact on survival.

Methods: The study analyzed clinicopathologic, perioperative, and oncologic data from a prospective database of 1435 CRS-HIPEC procedures for peritoneal metastases. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival. Multivariate analyses identified associations with ostomy creation/reversal and survival.

Results: Ostomies were created in 34% of the patients, most commonly loop ileostomies (82%). Loop ileostomies were reversed in the majority of patients (83%), whereas non-loop ileostomies were infrequently reversed (< 10% reversal rate). In a multivariate logistic regression model, intermediate or high tumor grade, colectomy/proctectomy, longer operative time, and lower Charlson comorbidity index were associated with loop ileostomy creation, whereas incomplete macroscopic resection, colorectal histology, and major postoperative complications were associated with non-reversal of loop ileostomy. In a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, intermediate or high tumor grade and non-reversal of loop ileostomy were associated with worse overall survival.

Conclusions: Loop ileostomies were almost always reversed, whereas non-loop ileostomies were almost always permanent. Hospital readmissions for loop ileostomy-related complications were common. Therefore, formal outpatient protocols for prevention and management should be implemented. Non-reversal of loop ileostomy was associated with very poor survival.

MeSH terms

  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use*
  • Chemotherapy, Adjuvant
  • Chemotherapy, Cancer, Regional Perfusion*
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Cytoreduction Surgical Procedures*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Hyperthermia, Induced*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Ostomy / methods*
  • Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary
  • Peritoneal Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Peritoneal Stomata
  • Prognosis
  • Prospective Studies
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Survival Rate