Background: Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion (CRS-HIPEC) is a complex procedure that often requires ostomy creation to protect high-risk anastomoses. This study aimed to evaluate the authors' institutional experience with CRS-HIPEC-associated ostomies, determine predictors of ostomy creation and reversal, and assess their impact on survival.
Methods: The study analyzed clinicopathologic, perioperative, and oncologic data from a prospective database of 1435 CRS-HIPEC procedures for peritoneal metastases. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival. Multivariate analyses identified associations with ostomy creation/reversal and survival.
Results: Ostomies were created in 34% of the patients, most commonly loop ileostomies (82%). Loop ileostomies were reversed in the majority of patients (83%), whereas non-loop ileostomies were infrequently reversed (< 10% reversal rate). In a multivariate logistic regression model, intermediate or high tumor grade, colectomy/proctectomy, longer operative time, and lower Charlson comorbidity index were associated with loop ileostomy creation, whereas incomplete macroscopic resection, colorectal histology, and major postoperative complications were associated with non-reversal of loop ileostomy. In a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, intermediate or high tumor grade and non-reversal of loop ileostomy were associated with worse overall survival.
Conclusions: Loop ileostomies were almost always reversed, whereas non-loop ileostomies were almost always permanent. Hospital readmissions for loop ileostomy-related complications were common. Therefore, formal outpatient protocols for prevention and management should be implemented. Non-reversal of loop ileostomy was associated with very poor survival.