Effects of probiotic bacteria on mucosal polyamines levels in dogs with IBD and colonic polyps: a preliminary study

Benef Microbes. 2018 Feb 27;9(2):247-255. doi: 10.3920/BM2017.0024. Epub 2017 Oct 12.


Spermine (SPM) and its precursor putrescine (PUT), regulated by ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and diamino-oxidase (DAO), are polyamines required for cell growth and proliferation. Only a few studies have investigated the anti-inflammatory and tumour inhibitory properties of probiotics on mucosal polyamine levels. We investigated the effects of a high concentration multistrain probiotic for human use on colonic polyamine biosynthesis in dogs. Histological sections (inflammatory bowel disease, n=10; polyposis, n=5) were assessed after receiving 112 to 225×109 lyophilised bacteria daily for 60 days at baseline (T0) and 30 days after treatment end (T90). Histology scores, expression of PUT, SPM, ODC and DAO, and a clinical activity index (CIBDAI) were compared at T0 and T90. In polyps, cellular proliferation (Ki-67 expression), and apoptosis (caspase-3 protein expression) were also evaluated. After treatment, in inflammatory bowel disease significant decreases were observed for CIBDAI (P=0.006) and histology scores (P<0.001); PUT, SPM and ODC expression increased (P<0.01). In polyps, a significant decrease in polyamine levels, ODC activity, and Ki-67, and a significant increase in caspase-3 positivity and DAO expression (P=0.005) was noted. Our results suggest potential anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects of the probiotic mixture in polyps and inflammation, associated with reduced mucosal infiltration and up-regulation of PUT, SPM, and ODC levels.

Keywords: dogs; mucosal histology; polyamines; polyps; probiotic.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial

MeSH terms

  • Amine Oxidase (Copper-Containing) / genetics
  • Amine Oxidase (Copper-Containing) / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Bacterial Physiological Phenomena*
  • Caspase 3 / genetics
  • Caspase 3 / metabolism
  • Colon / metabolism
  • Colon / pathology
  • Colonic Polyps / drug therapy
  • Colonic Polyps / microbiology
  • Colonic Polyps / pathology
  • Colonic Polyps / veterinary*
  • Dog Diseases / drug therapy*
  • Dog Diseases / microbiology
  • Dog Diseases / pathology
  • Dogs
  • Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / drug therapy
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / microbiology
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / pathology
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / veterinary*
  • Ki-67 Antigen / genetics
  • Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism
  • Ornithine Decarboxylase / genetics
  • Ornithine Decarboxylase / metabolism
  • Probiotics / therapeutic use*
  • Putrescine / biosynthesis
  • Spermine / biosynthesis
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Ki-67 Antigen
  • Spermine
  • Amine Oxidase (Copper-Containing)
  • Caspase 3
  • Ornithine Decarboxylase
  • Putrescine