Kinetics and Mechanisms of Chemical and Biological Agents Release from Biopolymeric Microcapsules

J Agric Food Chem. 2017 Nov 8;65(44):9608-9617. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.7b04075. Epub 2017 Oct 24.


Kinetics and mechanisms of copper cations and Trichoderma viride spores release from uncoated and chitosan coated alginate microcapsules were investigated. The gelation of a fixed amount of sodium alginate at different concentrations of copper ion solutions resulted in distinct kinetics and release mechanisms. The increase in copper cation concentration promoted, but the presence of the chitosan layer on the microcapsule surface and the increase in microcapsule size reduced the rate of active agent release. Fitting to simple Korsmeyer-Peppas empirical model revealed that the underlying release mechanism (Fickian diffusion or a combination of the diffusion and erosion mechanisms) depends on the copper cation concentration and presence of T. viride spores. The investigation pointed out that the proper selection of formulation variables helps in designing microcapsules with the desirable release of copper ions and T. viride for plant protection and nutrition.

Keywords: Trichoderma; agrochemicals; copper; microcapsules; sustainability.

MeSH terms

  • Alginates / chemistry
  • Biological Factors / chemistry*
  • Biopolymers / chemistry*
  • Capsules / chemistry
  • Chitosan / chemistry
  • Drug Compounding
  • Glucuronic Acid / chemistry
  • Hexuronic Acids / chemistry
  • Kinetics
  • Spores, Fungal / chemistry
  • Trichoderma / chemistry*


  • Alginates
  • Biological Factors
  • Biopolymers
  • Capsules
  • Hexuronic Acids
  • Glucuronic Acid
  • Chitosan