Pesticide Urinary Metabolites Among Latina Farmworkers and Nonfarmworkers in North Carolina

J Occup Environ Med. 2018 Jan;60(1):e63-e71. doi: 10.1097/JOM.0000000000001189.


Objectives: This paper compares detections and concentrations of pesticide urinary metabolites for Latina farmworkers and nonfarmworkers in North Carolina.

Methods: Thirty-one farmworkers and 55 nonfarmworkers provided urine samples in 2012 and 2013. Urine samples were analyzed for detections and concentrations of organophosphate insecticide, bis-dithiocarbamate fungicide, and pyrethroid insecticide urinary metabolites.

Results: Detections for several organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticide urinary metabolites were present for substantial proportions of the farmworkers and nonfarmworkers. Concentrations for several of these metabolites were high. Farmworkers and nonfarmworkers were similar in detections and concentrations for the pesticide urinary metabolites included in this analysis.

Conclusions: Participant pesticide exposure increases health risks for them and their children. Research needs to document pesticide exposure, its health effects, and ways to reduce it. Current information justifies policy development to reduce pesticide exposure in all communities.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Agriculture
  • Carbamates / urine*
  • Emigrants and Immigrants
  • Female
  • Fungicides, Industrial / urine*
  • Hispanic or Latino
  • Humans
  • Insecticides / metabolism
  • Insecticides / urine*
  • Middle Aged
  • North Carolina
  • Occupational Exposure*
  • Organophosphates / urine*
  • Pyrethrins / metabolism
  • Pyrethrins / urine*
  • Transients and Migrants


  • Carbamates
  • Fungicides, Industrial
  • Insecticides
  • Organophosphates
  • Pyrethrins