Aims: To summarize and extend the main conclusions and recommendations relevant to drug management during acute kidney disease (AKD) as agreed at the 16th Acute Disease Quality Initiative (ADQI) consensus conference.
Methods: Using a modified Delphi method to achieve consensus, experts attending the 16th ADQI consensus conference reviewed and appraised the existing literature on drug management during AKD and identified recommendations for clinical practice and future research. The group focussed on drugs with one of the following characteristics: (i) predominant renal excretion; (ii) nephrotoxicity; (iii) potential to alter glomerular function; and (iv) presence of metabolites that are modified in AKD and may affect other organs.
Results: We recommend that medication reconciliation should occur at admission and discharge, at AKD diagnosis and change in AKD phase, and when the patient's condition changes. Strategies to avoid adverse drug reactions in AKD should seek to minimize adverse events from overdosing and nephrotoxicity and therapeutic failure from under-dosing or incorrect drug selection. Medication regimen assessment or introduction of medications during the AKD period should consider the nephrotoxic potential, altered renal and nonrenal elimination, the effects of toxic metabolites and drug interactions and altered pharmacodynamics in AKD. A dynamic monitoring plan including repeated serial assessment of clinical features, utilization of renal diagnostic tests and therapeutic drug monitoring should be used to guide medication regimen assessment.
Conclusions: Drug management during different phases of AKD requires an individualized approach and frequent re-assessment. More research is needed to avoid drug associated harm and therapeutic failure.
Keywords: acute kidney disease; acute kidney injury; drug management; drugs.
© 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.