Dose-Response Effects of p-Synephrine on Fat Oxidation Rate During Exercise of Increasing Intensity

Phytother Res. 2018 Feb;32(2):370-374. doi: 10.1002/ptr.5937. Epub 2017 Oct 11.


The aim of this investigation was to determine the effects different doses of p-synephrine on maximal fat oxidation during exercise. Seventeen healthy subjects volunteered to participate in a double-blind and randomised experimental design composed of four identical experimental trials. On four trials separated by 72 h, participants ingested a placebo or 1, 2 or 3 mg/kg of p-synephrine. After resting for 60 min to allow substance absorption, participants performed an exercise test of increasing intensity on a cycle ergometer while gas exchange was measured continuously. None of the doses of p-synephrine affected energy expenditure or heart rates during the test. The highest rate of fat oxidation with the placebo (0.35 ± 0.05 g/min) was reached at 38.0 ± 1.9% of VO2max . The ingestion of 1 mg/kg increased maximal fat oxidation to 0.47 ± 0.11 g/min (p = 0.01) but did not change the intensity at which it was obtained (42.0 ± 9.4% of VO2max ). The ingestion of 2 and 3 mg/kg of p-synephrine increased maximal fat oxidation to 0.55 ± 0.14 g/min (p < 0.01), although only 3 mg/kg slightly changed the intensity at which it was obtained (43.0 ± 9.5% of VO2max , p < 0.01). In conclusion, although all p-synephrine increased the maximal rate of fat oxidation during exercise, the highest effects were found with 2 and 3 mg/kg. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Keywords: Citrus aurantium; bitter orange; body weight loss; fat oxidation; nutrition.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Energy Metabolism
  • Exercise
  • Female
  • Healthy Volunteers
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Synephrine / pharmacology
  • Synephrine / therapeutic use*


  • Synephrine