WHO guide on the economic evaluation of influenza vaccination

Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2018 Mar;12(2):211-219. doi: 10.1111/irv.12510. Epub 2017 Dec 27.


Influenza is responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality across the globe, with a large share of the total disease burden occurring in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). There have been relatively few economic evaluations assessing the value of seasonal influenza vaccination in LMICs. The purpose of this guide is to outline the key theoretical concepts and best practice in methodologies and to provide guidance on the economic evaluation of influenza vaccination in LMICs. It outlines many of the influenza vaccine-specific challenges and should help to provide a framework for future evaluations in the area to build upon.

Keywords: guidelines; influenza vaccines; vaccine economics.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cost-Benefit Analysis*
  • Developing Countries
  • Humans
  • Influenza Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • Influenza Vaccines / economics*
  • Influenza, Human / economics*
  • Influenza, Human / prevention & control*
  • Vaccination / economics*
  • World Health Organization


  • Influenza Vaccines