Paired sera from 40 male patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), 30 male patients with chronic coronary heart disease (CCHD), and 41 controls, matched for sex, age, time, and locality were investigated for antibodies to a novel type of Chlamydia sp, TWAR, and to chlamydial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group antigen. 27 patients with AMI (68%), and 15 (50%) patients with CCHD had raised IgG (greater than or equal to 128) and/or IgA (greater than or equal to 32) titres in the microimmunofluorescence test with chlamydia TWAR. Both frequencies were significantly higher than in the controls (7, 17%). 26 (68%) of 38 patients with AMI also showed a significant seroconversion in enzyme immunoassay with LPS antigen; this response was absent in all patients with CCHD and all but 1 of the controls. Chronic chlamydial infection could be a factor in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases.