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Review
, 22 (2), 180-190

Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI) and Transfusion-Associated Circulatory Overload (TACO) in Liver Transplantation: A Case Report and Focused Review

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Review

Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI) and Transfusion-Associated Circulatory Overload (TACO) in Liver Transplantation: A Case Report and Focused Review

Natalie K Smith et al. Semin Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth.

Abstract

Liver transplantation (LT) is a complex procedure in a patient with multi-organ system dysfunction and coagulation defects. The surgical procedure involves dissection, major vessel manipulation, and pathophysiologic effects of graft storage and reperfusion. As a result, LT frequently involves significant hemorrhage. Subsequent massive transfusion carries high risk of transfusion-associated complications. Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) and transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO) are the leading causes of transfusion associated mortality. In this case report and focused review, we present data that suggest that patients undergoing liver transplantation may be at higher risk for TRALI and TACO than the general population. Anesthesiologists can play a role in decreasing these risks by increasing recognition and reporting of TRALI and TACO, using point of care testing with thromboelastography to guide and decrease transfusion, and considering alternatives to traditional blood products like solvent/detergent plasma.

Keywords: coagulopathy; critical care; hemorrhage; intraoperative assessment; point of care monitoring; reperfusion.

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