Background: Pulmonary benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML) is a rare disease with a malignant characteristic of spread from the uterus. Most cases are asymptomatic, and only 1% are associated with pneumothorax.
Case report: We present the case of a 42-year-old female with recurrent pneumothoraces leading to an incidental finding of diffuse bilateral pulmonary nodules. The diagnosis of BML was based on the patient's history of uterine leiomyomata and confirmed by a biopsy showing benign smooth muscle staining for desmin and vimentin.
Conclusion: BML should be considered in women with a history of leiomyomata who develop pneumothoraces resulting from peripheral pulmonary nodules. A standardized treatment regimen has yet to be established, and therapy plans require a multidisciplinary approach, involving gynecology, cardiothoracic surgery, and pulmonology.
Keywords: Leiomyoma; lung neoplasm; neoplasm metastasis; pneumothorax.