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Review
, 14 (1), 27-42

Elucidating the Preadipocyte and Its Role in Adipocyte Formation: A Comprehensive Review

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Review

Elucidating the Preadipocyte and Its Role in Adipocyte Formation: A Comprehensive Review

Christos N Sarantopoulos et al. Stem Cell Rev Rep.

Abstract

Adipogenesis is a complex process whereby the multipotent adipose-derived stem cell is converted to a preadipocyte before terminal differentiation into the mature adipocyte. Preadipocytes are present throughout adult life, exhibit adipose fat depot specificity, and differentiate and proliferate from distinct progenitor cells. The mechanisms that promote preadipocyte commitment and maturation involve numerous protein factor regulators, epigenetic factors, and miRNAs. Detailed characterization of this process is currently an area of intense research and understanding the roles of preadipocytes in tissue plasticity may provide insight into novel approaches for tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and treating a host of obesity-related conditions. In the current study, we analyzed the current literature and present a review of the characteristics of transitioning adipocytes and detail how local microenvironments influence their progression towards terminal differentiation and maturation. Specifically, we detail the characterization of preadipocyte via surface markers, examine the signaling cascades and regulation behind adipogenesis and cell maturation, and survey their role in tissue plasticity and health and disease.

Keywords: Adipocyte; Adipogenesis; Adipose-derived stem cell; Preadipocyte; Stromal vascular fraction.

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