Potassium Homeostasis in Health and Disease: A Scientific Workshop Cosponsored by the National Kidney Foundation and the American Society of Hypertension

Am J Kidney Dis. 2017 Dec;70(6):844-858. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2017.09.003. Epub 2017 Oct 10.


While much emphasis, and some controversy, centers on recommendations for sodium intake, there has been considerably less interest in recommendations for dietary potassium intake, in both the general population and patients with medical conditions, particularly acute and chronic kidney disease. Physiology literature and cohort studies have noted that the relative balance in sodium and potassium intakes is an important determinant of many of the sodium-related outcomes. A noteworthy characteristic of potassium in clinical medicine is the extreme concern shared by many practitioners when confronted by a patient with hyperkalemia. Fear of this often asymptomatic finding limits enthusiasm for recommending potassium intake and often limits the use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers in patients with heart failure and chronic kidney diseases. New agents for managing hyperkalemia may alter the long-term management of heart failure and the hypertension, proteinuria, and further function loss in chronic kidney diseases. In this jointly sponsored effort between the American Society of Hypertension and the National Kidney Foundation, 3 panels of researchers and practitioners from various disciplines discussed and summarized current understanding of the role of potassium in health and disease, focusing on cardiovascular, nutritional, and kidney considerations associated with both hypo- and hyperkalemia.

Keywords: Potassium; cardiovascular disease (CVD); chronic kidney disease (CKD); dietary intake; heart disease; hyperkalemia; hypokalemia; patiromer calcium (RLY5016); potassium homeostasis; potassium secretion; renal excretion; review; sodium zirconium cyclosilicate (ZS-9); sodium-polystyrene sulfonate.

MeSH terms

  • Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists / adverse effects
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / adverse effects
  • Congresses as Topic
  • Heart Failure / drug therapy
  • Heart Failure / metabolism
  • Homeostasis
  • Humans
  • Hyperkalemia / chemically induced
  • Hyperkalemia / metabolism*
  • Hypertension / drug therapy
  • Hypertension / metabolism*
  • Hypokalemia / metabolism*
  • Potassium / metabolism*
  • Potassium, Dietary / metabolism*
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / drug therapy
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / metabolism*
  • Societies, Medical


  • Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Potassium, Dietary
  • Potassium