Purpose: To assess the radiation dose tolerance of the spinal cord by reviewing our institutional experience regarding the incidence of radiation-induced spinal cord toxicity after high-dose pencil beam scanning proton therapy (PBSPT).
Methods and materials: Seventy-six patients (median age 53 years; range, 23-79 years) treated for spinal chordoma (n=55) or chondrosarcoma (n=21) met the following criteria and were retrospectively analyzed: PBSPT only, no reirradiation or concomitant chemotherapy, maximum dose (Dmax) to the spinal cord of ≥45 Gy(relative biological effectiveness [RBE]), ≥18 years of age, and follow-up of ≥12 months. The delivered dose was 59.4 to 75.2 Gy(RBE) [median 73.9 Gy(RBE)] delivered with conventional fractionation between 2000 and 2014. The Dmax, D2%, and V40-V60 of the surface (sSC) and center (cSC) of the spinal cord were recorded. Toxicity was scored according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.03.
Results: Median follow-up was 65.5 months (range, 13-173 months). Patients received a mean Dmax and D2% to the sSC of 59.0 (median 58.7; range, 48.3-75.9) and 55.3 (median 52.7; range, 43.1-73.8) Gy(RBE), respectively. The corresponding values for the cSC were 52.3 (median 52.7; range, 32.3-73.3) and 51.1 (median 52.0; range, 25.3-73.1) Gy(RBE), respectively. Four patients (5%) developed acute radiation-induced neurotoxicity (grade [G] 1, n=1; G2, n=3). Twelve patients (16%) experienced late neurologic toxicities (G1, n=7; G2, n=4; G4, n=1). One patient with a history of pre-PBSPT symptomatic spinal cord compression redeveloped tetraplegia (G4) after receiving a Dmax of 57.8 Gy(RBE) to the sSC and 54.1 Gy(RBE) to the cSC. No significant correlation was found between sSC Dmax and D2%, cSC Dmax and D2%, or the length of CTV and toxicity.
Conclusions: High-dose conformal PBSPT may be delivered safely in close proximity to the spinal cord with minimal neurotoxicity. Dose constraints of 64 Gy(RBE) as D2% for the sSC and 54 Gy(RBE) for the cSC seem appropriate for clinical use.
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