Nephroprotective Effect of Electrolyzed Reduced Water Against Cisplatin-Induced Kidney Toxicity and Oxidative Damage in Mice

J Chin Med Assoc. 2018 Feb;81(2):119-126. doi: 10.1016/j.jcma.2017.08.014. Epub 2017 Oct 10.

Abstract

Background: Cisplatin is a potent chemotherapeutic drug for cancer therapy, but it has serious side effects in clinical treatment, particularly nephrotoxicity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) on renal injury caused by cisplatin.

Methods: Animals were divided into four groups as follows: normal control group, cisplatin control group, ERW control group and ERW + cisplatin group. Each group comprised 10 animals, which were orally treated with normal saline or ERW daily companion by administration of one dose of cisplatin for 28 days. Animals in the cisplatin group received an intraperitoneal single-dose injection of cisplatin (20 mg/kg body weight) as a single i.p. dose on the 25th day of the experiment. We determined the hydration state in urine and the level of serum markers of kidney function, the levels of glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) levels and the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT) and superoxidase dismutase (SOD) in kidney and histopathological changes.

Results: After administration of ERW, the reduced urinary osmolality was increased and elevated Na+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ levels in urine were significantly decreased in cisplatin-induced renal injury mice. Besides, the results demonstrated that significantly decreased elevated serum levels of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and the levels of TBARS in the kidneys that were induced by cisplatin. Moreover, ERW treatment was also found to markedly increase (p < 0.05) the activities of GPx, GR, CAT and SOD, and to increase GSH content in the kidneys. Histopathology showed that ERW protects against cisplatin-induced renal injury to both the proximal and distal tubules.

Conclusion: ERW exhibits potent nephroprotective effects on cisplatin-induced kidney damage in mice, likely due to both the increase in antioxidant-defense system activity and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

Keywords: Cisplatin; Electrolyzed reduced water; Kidney; Nephrotoxicity; Oxidative stress.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cisplatin / toxicity*
  • Electrolysis
  • Glutathione / metabolism
  • Kidney / drug effects*
  • Kidney / metabolism
  • Kidney / pathology
  • Lipid Peroxidation / drug effects
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred ICR
  • Protective Agents / pharmacology
  • Water / pharmacology*

Substances

  • Protective Agents
  • Water
  • Glutathione
  • Cisplatin