Improved strategies for electrochemical 1,4-NAD(P)H 2 regeneration: A new era of bioreactors for industrial biocatalysis

Biotechnol Adv. Jan-Feb 2018;36(1):120-131. doi: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2017.10.003. Epub 2017 Oct 10.


Industrial enzymatic reactions requiring 1,4-NAD(P)H2 to perform redox transformations often require convoluted coupled enzyme regeneration systems to regenerate 1,4-NAD(P)H2 from NAD(P) and recycle the cofactor for as many turnovers as possible. Renewed interest in recycling the cofactor via electrochemical means is motivated by the low cost of performing electrochemical reactions, easy monitoring of the reaction progress, and straightforward product recovery. However, electrochemical cofactor regeneration methods invariably produce adventitious reduced cofactor side products which result in unproductive loss of input NAD(P). We review various literature strategies for mitigating adventitious product formation by electrochemical cofactor regeneration systems, and offer insight as to how a successful electrochemical bioreactor system could be constructed to engineer efficient 1,4-NAD(P)H2-dependent enzyme reactions of interest to the industrial biocatalysis community.

Keywords: Biocatalysis; Cofactor regeneration; Cofactors; Electrochemical bioreactors; Industrial biotechnology; NADH; NADPH; Renalase.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biocatalysis
  • Bioreactors*
  • Electrochemical Techniques*
  • NAD / metabolism*
  • NADP / metabolism*
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Oxidoreductases


  • NAD
  • NADP
  • Oxidoreductases