Background: Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling contributes to in-stent restenosis and thrombosis. Despite its important clinical implications, little is known about ECM changes post-stent implantation.
Methods: Bare-metal and drug-eluting stents were implanted in pig coronary arteries with an overstretch under optical coherence tomography guidance. Stented segments were harvested 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days post-stenting for proteomics analysis of the media and neointima.
Results: A total of 151 ECM and ECM-associated proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. After stent implantation, proteins involved in regulating calcification were upregulated in the neointima of drug-eluting stents. The earliest changes in the media were proteins involved in inflammation and thrombosis, followed by changes in regulatory ECM proteins. By day 28, basement membrane proteins were reduced in drug-eluting stents in comparison with bare-metal stents. In contrast, the large aggregating proteoglycan aggrecan was increased. Aggrecanases of the ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) family contribute to the catabolism of vascular proteoglycans. An increase in ADAMTS-specific aggrecan fragments was accompanied by a notable shift from ADAMTS1 and ADAMTS5 to ADAMTS4 gene expression after stent implantation. Immunostaining in human stented coronary arteries confirmed the presence of aggrecan and aggrecan fragments, in particular, at the contacts of the stent struts with the artery. Further investigation of aggrecan presence in the human vasculature revealed that aggrecan and aggrecan cleavage were more abundant in human arteries than in human veins. In addition, aggrecan synthesis was induced on grafting a vein into the arterial circulation, suggesting an important role for aggrecan in vascular plasticity. Finally, lack of ADAMTS-5 activity in mice resulted in an accumulation of aggrecan and a dilation of the thoracic aorta, confirming that aggrecanase activity regulates aggrecan abundance in the arterial wall and contributes to vascular remodeling.
Conclusions: Significant differences were identified by proteomics in the ECM of coronary arteries after bare-metal and drug-eluting stent implantation, most notably an upregulation of aggrecan, a major ECM component of cartilaginous tissues that confers resistance to compression. The accumulation of aggrecan coincided with a shift in ADAMTS gene expression. This study provides the first evidence implicating aggrecan and aggrecanases in the vascular injury response after stenting.
Keywords: coronary artery; disease; extracellular matrix; mass spectrometry; neointima; stents.
© 2017 The Authors.