Epidemiology of Acid-Base Derangements in CKD

Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2017 Sep;24(5):280-288. doi: 10.1053/j.ackd.2017.08.003.


Acid-base disorders are in patients with chronic kidney disease, with chronic metabolic acidosis receiving the most attention clinically in terms of diagnosis and treatment. A number of observational studies have reported on the prevalence of acid-base disorders in this patient population and their relationship with outcomes, mostly focusing on chronic metabolic acidosis. The majority have used serum bicarbonate alone to define acid-base status due to the lack of widely available data on other acid-base disorders. This review discusses the time course of acid-base alterations in CKD patients, their prevalence, and associations with CKD progression and mortality.

Keywords: Acidosis; Alkalosis; Epidemiology; Mortality; Renal insufficiency.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Acid-Base Equilibrium*
  • Acid-Base Imbalance / blood*
  • Acid-Base Imbalance / epidemiology*
  • Acid-Base Imbalance / etiology
  • Acid-Base Imbalance / urine
  • Bicarbonates / blood*
  • Disease Progression
  • Humans
  • Prevalence
  • Renal Dialysis
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / blood*
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / complications
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / physiopathology
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / therapy
  • Risk Factors


  • Bicarbonates