Background: A 7-month-old male infant was admitted because he was suffering from nephrotic syndrome, along with encephalomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, clinically suspected deafness and retinitis pigmentosa, and an elevated serum lactate level.
Methods: Coenzyme Q10 supplementation was started because of the clinical suspicion of primary CoQ10 deficiency. Despite intensive efforts, he passed away 4 weeks after admission.
Results: The results of genetic tests, available postmortem, explored two hitherto undescribed mutations in the PDSS2 gene. Both were located within the polyprenyl synthetase domain. Clinical exome sequencing revealed a heterozygous missense mutation in exon 3, and our in-house joint-analysis algorithm detected a heterozygous large 2923-bp deletion that affected the 5 prime end of exon 8. Other causative defects in the CoQ10 and infantile nephrosis-related genes examined were not found. A postmortem histological, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic evaluation of the glomeruli revealed collapsing-sclerosing lesions consistent with diffuse mesangial sclerosis. The extrarenal alterations included hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and diffuse alveolar damage. A histological evaluation of the central nervous system and skeletal muscles did not demonstrate any obvious abnormality.
Conclusions: Until now, the clinical features and the mutational status of 6 patients with a PDSS2 gene defect have been reported in the English literature. Here, we describe for the first time detailed kidney morphology features in a patient with nephrotic syndrome carrying mutations in the PDSS2 gene.
Keywords: CoQ10; Diffuse mesangial sclerosis; Nephrotic; PDSS2.