Torso geometry reconstruction and body surface electrode localization using three-dimensional photography

J Electrocardiol. Jan-Feb 2018;51(1):60-67. doi: 10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2017.08.035. Epub 2017 Sep 1.


We conducted a prospective clinical study (n=14; 29% female) to assess the accuracy of a three-dimensional (3D) photography-based method of torso geometry reconstruction and body surface electrodes localization. The position of 74 body surface electrocardiographic (ECG) electrodes (diameter 5mm) was defined by two methods: 3D photography, and CT (marker diameter 2mm) or MRI (marker size 10×20mm) imaging. Bland-Altman analysis showed good agreement in X (bias -2.5 [95% limits of agreement (LoA) -19.5 to 14.3] mm), Y (bias -0.1 [95% LoA -14.1 to 13.9] mm), and Z coordinates (bias -0.8 [95% LoA -15.6 to 14.2] mm), as defined by the CT/MRI imaging, and 3D photography. The average Hausdorff distance between the two torso geometry reconstructions was 11.17±3.05mm. Thus, accurate torso geometry reconstruction using 3D photography is feasible. Body surface ECG electrodes coordinates as defined by the CT/MRI imaging, and 3D photography, are in good agreement.

Keywords: ECG imaging; ECG recording; Electrode position.

Publication types

  • Clinical Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Electrocardiography / instrumentation
  • Electrocardiography / methods*
  • Electrodes
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
  • Imaging, Three-Dimensional*
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Male
  • Observer Variation
  • Photography / methods*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • Torso / anatomy & histology
  • Torso / diagnostic imaging*