Gastric ECL-cell hyperplasia and carcinoids in rodents following chronic administration of H2-antagonists SK&F 93479 and oxmetidine and omeprazole

Toxicol Pathol. 1988;16(2):288-98. doi: 10.1177/019262338801600222.


The histamine H2-receptor antagonist SK&F 93479 induced gastric neuroendocrine (carcinoid) ECL-cell tumor formation in 6/34 male and 8/37 female rats treated for 22-24 months at 1,000 mg/kg/day po. Focal ECL-cell hyperplasia was present in 21/34 males and 15/37 females, with local infiltration through the muscularis mucosae in half these cases. No focal hyperplasias or carcinoids were present after 200 mg/kg/day po treatment. Investigative studies showed evidence for marked and sustained hypergastrinemia increasing on chronic dosing which was capable of restoring gastric acid secretion and pH to near control values. Using morphometric analysis of immunoperoxidase anti-chromogranin A stained sections, a dose-related and time-dependent neuroendocrine ECL-cell hyperplasia was correlated with the sustained elevated hypergastrinemia. A 21-month mouse oncogenicity study showed no focal neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia or carcinoid tumor induction, but a diffuse neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia and an increase in multifocal glandular hyperplasia of the oxyntic mucosa was observed in mice treated with 1,000 mg/kg SK&F 93479 po. The morphological changes observed in both rat and mouse were considered to be secondary to the hypergastrinemia resulting from the pharmacological suppression of gastric acid secretion by SK&F 93479. These changes were also observed to a more marked degree following omeprazole treatment and were only slight following oxmetidine treatment in the rat.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Carcinogens*
  • Carcinoid Tumor / chemically induced
  • Carcinoid Tumor / pathology
  • Enterochromaffin Cells / drug effects
  • Enterochromaffin Cells / pathology
  • Female
  • Gastric Acid / metabolism
  • Gastric Mucosa / drug effects*
  • Gastric Mucosa / pathology
  • Gastrins / blood
  • Histamine H2 Antagonists / toxicity*
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Hyperplasia / chemically induced
  • Hyperplasia / pathology
  • Imidazoles / toxicity*
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Omeprazole / toxicity*
  • Pyrimidinones / toxicity*
  • Rats
  • Stomach Neoplasms / chemically induced
  • Stomach Neoplasms / pathology


  • Carcinogens
  • Gastrins
  • Histamine H2 Antagonists
  • Imidazoles
  • Pyrimidinones
  • SK&F 93479
  • Omeprazole
  • oxmetidine