Association Between Later Life Lifestyle Factors and Alzheimer's Disease Biomarkers in Non-Demented Individuals: A Longitudinal Descriptive Cohort Study

J Alzheimers Dis. 2017;60(4):1387-1395. doi: 10.3233/JAD-170039.


Background: Lifestyle factors have been associated with the risk of dementia, but the association with Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains unclear.

Objective: To examine the association between later life lifestyle factors and AD biomarkers (i.e., amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ42) and tau in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and hippocampal volume) in individuals with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In addition, to examine the effect of later life lifestyle factors on developing AD-type dementia in individuals with MCI.

Methods: We selected individuals with SCD (n = 111) and MCI (n = 353) from the DESCRIPA and Kuopio Longitudinal MCI studies. CSF Aβ42 and tau concentrations were assessed with ELISA assay and hippocampal volume with multi-atlas segmentation. Lifestyle was assessed by clinical interview at baseline for: social activity, physical activity, cognitive activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, and sleep. We performed logistic and Cox regression analyses adjusted for study site, age, gender, education, and diagnosis. Prediction for AD-type dementia was performed in individuals with MCI only.

Results: Later life lifestyle factors were not associated with AD biomarkers or with conversion to AD-type dementia. AD biomarkers were strongly associated with conversion to AD-type dementia, but these relations were not modulated by lifestyle factors. Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype did not influence the results.

Conclusions: Later life lifestyle factors had no impact on key AD biomarkers in individuals with SCD and MCI or on conversion to AD-type dementia in MCI.

Keywords: Alcohol consumption; Alzheimer’s disease; amyloid-β (1–42); cerebrospinal fluid; cognitive reserve; exercise; hippocampus; lifestyle; mild cognitive impairment.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Alcohol Drinking / cerebrospinal fluid
  • Alcohol Drinking / epidemiology
  • Alcohol Drinking / pathology
  • Alzheimer Disease / cerebrospinal fluid
  • Alzheimer Disease / diagnostic imaging
  • Alzheimer Disease / epidemiology
  • Alzheimer Disease / pathology
  • Apolipoproteins E / genetics
  • Cognition
  • Cognition Disorders / cerebrospinal fluid*
  • Cognition Disorders / diagnostic imaging*
  • Cognition Disorders / epidemiology
  • Cognition Disorders / pathology
  • Diagnostic Self Evaluation
  • Disease Progression
  • Educational Status
  • Exercise
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Hippocampus / diagnostic imaging*
  • Hippocampus / pathology
  • Humans
  • Life Style*
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Organ Size
  • Sex Factors
  • Sleep
  • Smoking / cerebrospinal fluid
  • Smoking / epidemiology
  • Smoking / pathology
  • Social Behavior


  • Apolipoproteins E