Low dietary intake of n-3 fatty acids, niacin, folate, and vitamin C in Korean patients with schizophrenia and the development of dietary guidelines for schizophrenia

Nutr Res. 2017 Sep;45:10-18. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2017.07.001. Epub 2017 Jul 19.


Inappropriate dietary intake and poor nutritional status are reported to be associated with metabolic syndrome and psychopathology in patients with schizophrenia. We hypothesized that inappropriate dietary habits and insufficient dietary intake of specific nutrients are associated with schizophrenia. To test the hypothesis, we assessed the dietary habits and nutritional intake of patients with schizophrenia and then developed suitable dietary guidelines. In total, 140 subjects (73 controls and 67 patients with schizophrenia from community mental health centers) were included, and dietary intakes were analyzed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. As a result, the proportion of overweight or obese patients was significantly higher in schizophrenia subjects (64.2%) compared with control subjects (39.7%) (P=.004). The male schizophrenia patients had significantly lower dietary intakes of protein, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), vitamin K, niacin, folate, and vitamin C than the male control subjects. In all multiple logistic regression models, subjects with the "low" dietary intake of protein, n-3 PUFAs, niacin, folate, and vitamin C had a significantly higher odds ratios for schizophrenia compared with those with the "high" dietary intake category of each nutrient. Therefore, maintenance of a healthy body weight and sufficient dietary intake of protein, PUFAs, niacin, folate, and vitamin C are recommended for Korean patients with schizophrenia.

Keywords: Dietary guidelines; Folate; N-3 PUFAs; Niacin; Schizophrenia.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Ascorbic Acid / administration & dosage*
  • Diet*
  • Fatty Acids, Omega-3 / administration & dosage*
  • Feeding Behavior
  • Female
  • Folic Acid / administration & dosage*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Minerals / administration & dosage
  • Niacin / administration & dosage*
  • Nutrition Policy
  • Nutritional Status
  • Obesity / complications
  • Overweight / complications
  • Schizophrenia / complications
  • Schizophrenia / diet therapy*
  • Schizophrenia / physiopathology
  • Vitamins / administration & dosage


  • Fatty Acids, Omega-3
  • Minerals
  • Vitamins
  • Niacin
  • Folic Acid
  • Ascorbic Acid