Nanoparticles can be engineered for targeted antigen delivery to the immune cells and for stimulating the immune response to improve the antigen immunogenicity. This approach is commonly used to develop nanotechnology-based vaccines. In addition, some nanotechnology platforms may be initially designed for drug delivery, but in the course of subsequent characterization, their additional immunomodulatory functions may be discovered that can potentially benefit vaccine efficacy. In both of these scenarios, an in vivo proof of concept study to verify the utility of the nanocarrier for improving vaccine efficacy is needed. Here, we describe an experimental approach and considerations for designing an animal study to test adjuvant properties of engineered nanomaterials in vivo.
Keywords: Adjuvant; Antibody; Antigen; Nanoparticles; Vaccines.