Background: Childhood neuroblastoma describes a heterogeneous group of extracranial solid tumors, that are treated per risk profile. We sought to describe treatment patterns and survival using population-based data from throughout the United States.
Materials and methods: Using the National Cancer Institute (NCI)'s Patterns of Care data, we analyzed treatment provided to newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed neuroblastoma patients in 2010 and 2011, registered to one of 14 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) cancer registries. Data were re-abstracted from hospital records and treating physicians contacted for verification. Application of the Children's Oncology Group (COG)'s 3-level (low, intermediate and high) neuroblastoma risk classification system for therapeutic decision-making provided insight to community-based treatment patterns. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses, based on 5-years of follow-up, were also performed.
Results: 76% of the 250 patients were enrolled on an open/active clinical trial. All low-risk patients received surgery. Most intermediate-risk patients (81%) received a chemotherapy regimen that included carboplatin, etoposide, cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin. High-risk patients received extensive, multimodal treatment consisting of chemotherapy, surgery, myeloablative chemotherapy with stem cell rescue (transplant), radiation, immunotherapy (dinutuximab), and isotretinoin therapy. 21% patients had died at the end of the maximum 60-month follow-up period. The 5-year estimated survival rates were lower for patients diagnosed with stage 4 disease, unfavorable DNA ploidy, MYCN gene amplification or classified as high-risk.
Conclusion: Most neuroblastoma patients are registered on a risk-based open/active clinical trial. Variation in modality, systemic agents and sequence of treatment reflects the heterogeneity of therapy received by these patients.
Keywords: Immunotherapy; neuroblastoma; survival; therapeutics.