Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI) increases the risk of death in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. Intravenous thrombolytic therapy (iv. rt-PA) seems to be the most effective treatment for AIS patients. The effects of AKI on iv. rt-PA treated AIS cases is less studied. Our paper addresses this issue.
Methods: 45 consecutive stroke patients treated with iv. rt-PA (median age = 64 years; 29 male) and 59 age and sex matched controls not eligible for iv. rt-PA have been enrolled in our study. Subjects were followed-up until hospital release or death (median follow up time = 12 days).
Results: The prevalence of AKI did not differ between iv. rt-PA treated patients and controls (35.5% vs. 33.89%). In both groups, AKI was associated with increased in-hospital mortality: 50.0% vs. 3.4% p<0.0001 (in the rt-PA treated), and 45% vs. 30.7% (in controls). AKI iv. rt-PA treated patients had a significantly higher risk of in hospital mortality as compared to the no-AKI iv. rt-PA treated (HR = 15.2 (95%CI [1.87 to 124.24]; P = 0.011). In a Cox-multivariate model, the presence of AKI after iv. rt-PA remained a significant factor (HR = 8.354; p = 0.041) influencing the in-hospital mortality even after correction for other confounding factors. The independent predictors for AKI were: decreased eGFR baseline and elevated serum levels of uric acid at admission, (the model explained 60.2% of the AKI development).
Conclusions: The risk of AKI was increased in AIS patients. Thrombolysis itself did not increase the risk of AKI. In the iv. rt-PA patients, as compared to non-AKI, those which developed AKI had a higher rate of in-hospital mortality. The baseline eGFR and the serum uric acid at admission were independent predictors for AKI development in the iv. rt-PA treated AIS patients.