Background: The Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT; ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01206062) reported reduced cardiovascular events by intensive blood pressure (BP) control amongst hypertensive patients without diabetes. However, the risk-benefit profile of intensive BP control may differ across estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) levels.
Methods: This is a post hoc analysis of the SPRINT. Nondiabetic hypertensive adults (n = 9361) with eGFR >20 mL per min per 1.73 m2 were enrolled from 102 US facilities between November 2010 and March 2013 and were followed up until August 2015 (median follow-up, 3.26 years). Patients were randomly assigned to either a systolic BP target of <120 or <140 mmHg (for intensive or standard treatment, respectively). The outcomes of interests were the development of (i) fatal and nonfatal major cardiovascular events and (ii) acute kidney injury (AKI).
Results: The cardiovascular benefit from intensive treatment was attenuated with lower eGFR (Pinteraction = 0.019), whereas eGFR did not modify the adverse effect on AKI (Pinteraction = 0.179). Amongst 891 participants with eGFR <45 mL per min per 1.73 m2 , intensive treatment did not reduce the cardiovascular outcome (54/446 vs. 54/445 events in the standard group, respectively; hazard ratio [HR], 0.92; 95% CI, 0.62-1.38) with an absolute rate difference (ARD) of -0.02 (95% CI, -0.07 to +0.03) per 100 patient-years, whereas it increased AKI (62/446 vs. 38/445 events in the standard group; HR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.12-2.66) with an ARD of +1.93 (95% CI, +1.88 to +1.97) per 100 patient-years.
Conclusions: Intensive BP control may provide little or no benefit and even be harmful for patients with moderate-to-advanced chronic kidney disease.
Keywords: acute renal failure; blood pressure control; cardiovascular clinical research; chronic renal failure; hypertension.
© 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.