Objective: Vitamins K and D are important for the function of vitamin K-dependent proteins in joint tissues. It is unclear whether these nutrients are mutually important to functional outcomes related to knee osteoarthritis (OA). We evaluated the association of vitamin K and D sufficiency with lower-extremity function in the Health, Aging and Body Composition knee OA substudy (Health ABC) and conducted a replication analysis in an independent cohort, the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI).
Methods: In Health ABC (60% female, mean ± SD age 75 ± 3 years) baseline nutrient status was measured using circulating vitamin K and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D). Lower-extremity function was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and usual 20-meter gait speed. In the OAI (58% female, mean ± SD age 61 ± 9 years), baseline nutrient intake was estimated by food frequency questionnaire. Lower-extremity function was assessed using usual 20-meter gait speed and chair stand completion time. Multivariate mixed models were used to evaluate the association of vitamin K and D status and intake with lower-extremity function over 4-5 years.
Results: Health ABC participants with sufficient plasma vitamin K (≥1.0 nmoles/liter) and serum 25(OH)D (≥50 nmoles/liter) generally had better SPPB scores and faster usual gait speed over followup (P ≤ 0.002). In the OAI, sufficient vitamin K and vitamin D intake combined was associated with overall faster usual gait speed and chair stand completion time over followup (P ≤ 0.029).
Conclusion: Sufficient vitamin K status combined with sufficient vitamin D status was associated with better lower-extremity function in 2 knee OA cohorts. These findings merit confirmation in vitamin K and D co-supplementation trials.
© 2017, American College of Rheumatology.