Objective: To analyze the fecal microbiota composition of children living in an urban slum in Brazil, with or without small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and to investigate the occurrence of stunting and anemia.
Methods: A total of 100 children were studied, aged 5-11 years, from the municipality of Osasco, São Paulo. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth was screened through hydrogen and methane breath test with lactulose. Weight and height were measured, and the height-for-age and body mass-for-age anthropometric indexes were calculated. The occurrence of anemia was investigated by capillary hemoglobin. Analysis of bacterial phylum, genus, and species was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction in fecal samples.
Results: Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth was identified in 61.0% of the children. A lower mean of height-for-age Z-score ([-0.48±0.90] vs. [-0.11±0.97]; p=0.027), as well as capillary hemoglobin ([12.61±1.03g/dL] vs. [13.44±1.19g/dL]; p<0.001) was demonstrated in children with SIBO when compared with children without small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Children with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth presented a higher frequency of Salmonella spp., when compared to those without small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (37.7% vs. 10.3%; p=0.002). Higher counts of total Eubacteria (p=0.014) and Firmicutes (p=0.038) were observed in children without small intestinal bacterial overgrowth; however, a higher count of Salmonella (p=0.002) was found in children with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.
Conclusion: Children who lived in a slum and were diagnosed with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth showed lower H/A Z-scores and hemoglobin levels. Furthermore, differences were observed in the fecal microbiota of children with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, when compared to those without it; specifically, a higher frequency and count of Salmonella, and lower counts of Firmicutes and total Eubacteria.
Keywords: Child; Criança; Environmental exposure; Exposição ambiental; Fecal microbiota; Microbiota fecal.
Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.