Thyroid hormones (TH) are crucial for development, growth, differentiation, metabolism and thermogenesis. Skeletal muscle (SM) contractile function, myogenesis and bioenergetic metabolism are influenced by TH. These effects depend on the presence of the TH transporters MCT8 and MCT10 in the plasma membrane, the expression of TH receptors (THRA or THRB) and hormone availability, which is determined either by the activation of thyroxine (T4) into triiodothyronine (T3) by type 2 iodothyronine deiodinases (D2) or by the inactivation of T4 into reverse T3 by deiodinases type 3 (D3). SM relaxation and contraction rates depend on T3 regulation of myosin expression and energy supplied by substrate oxidation in the mitochondria. The balance between D2 and D3 expression determines TH intracellular levels and thus influences the proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells, indicating an important role of TH in muscle repair and myogenesis. During critical illness, changes in TH levels and in THR and deiodinase expression negatively affect SM function and repair. This review will discuss the influence of TH action on SM contraction, bioenergetics metabolism, myogenesis and repair in health and illness conditions.
Keywords: contraction; illness; myogenesis; nonthyroidal illness syndrome; skeletal muscle; thyroid hormone; triiodothyronine.
© 2018 Society for Endocrinology.