The National Cancer Institute Inherited Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes Cohort enrolls patients with the four major syndromes: Fanconi anemia, dyskeratosis congenita, Diamond-Blackfan anemia, and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, and follows them with a common comprehensive protocol. The current analysis includes more than double the numbers of patients and person-years since our first report, published in 2010. Patients with Fanconi anemia and dyskeratosis congenita developed head and neck and anogenital squamous cell carcinomas at rates that were hundreds-fold greater than those of the general population. In competing risk analyses the cumulative incidence of severe bone marrow failure, leading to stem cell transplantation or death, was more than 70% by age 60. Patients with Diamond-Blackfan anemia developed lung, colon, and cervical cancer at rates greater than those of the general population. The cumulative incidence of severe bone marrow failure in those with Diamond-Blackfan anemia was 50% by age 60. The smaller group, with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, have not as yet developed a significant number of solid tumors, but 40% developed bone marrow failure by age 50. The risk of solid tumors following stem cell transplantation in Fanconi anemia and in dyskeratosis congenita was significantly higher than in non-transplanted patients. There was no clear association of genotype with cancer in any of the syndromes. Cancer was most common in Fanconi anemia, followed by dyskeratosis congenita; Diamond-Blackfan anemia and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome are less cancer-prone, but nonetheless all patients are at increased risks of bone marrow failure and specific cancers. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: 00027274.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00027274.
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