A Review of Generic Preference-Based Measures for Use in Cost-Effectiveness Models

Pharmacoeconomics. 2017 Dec;35(Suppl 1):21-31. doi: 10.1007/s40273-017-0545-x.


Generic preference-based measures (GPBMs) of health are used to obtain the quality adjustment weight required to calculate the quality-adjusted life year in health economic models. GPBMs have been developed to use across different interventions and medical conditions and typically consist of a self-complete patient questionnaire, a health state classification system, and preference weights for all states defined by the classification system. Of the six main GPBMs, the three most frequently used are the Health Utilities Index version 3, the EuroQol 5 dimensions (3 and 5 levels), and the Short Form 6 dimensions. There are considerable differences in GPBMs in terms of the content and size of descriptive systems (i.e. the numbers of dimensions of health and levels of severity within these), the methods of valuation [e.g. time trade-off (TTO), standard gamble (SG)], and the populations (e.g. general population, patients) used to value the health states within the descriptive systems. Although GPBMs are anchored at 1 (full health) and 0 (dead), they produce different health state utility values when completed by the same patient. Considerations when selecting a measure for use in a clinical trial include practicality, reliability, validity and responsiveness. Requirements of reimbursement agencies may impose additional restrictions on suitable measures for use in economic evaluations, such as the valuation technique (TTO, SG) or the source of values (general public vs. patients).

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cost-Benefit Analysis
  • Health Status
  • Humans
  • Models, Economic*
  • Patient Preference*
  • Quality of Life
  • Quality-Adjusted Life Years
  • Reimbursement Mechanisms
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Surveys and Questionnaires*