Residue Dynamics and Risk Assessment of Prochloraz and Its Metabolite 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol in Apple

Molecules. 2017 Oct 20;22(10):1780. doi: 10.3390/molecules22101780.


The residue dynamics and risk assessment of prochloraz and its metabolite 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) in apple under different treatment concentrations were investigated using a GC-ECD method. The derivatization percent of prochloraz to 2,4,6-TCP was stable and complete. The recoveries of prochloraz and 2,4,6-TCP were 82.9%-114.4%, and the coefficients of variation (CV) were 0.7%-8.6% for the whole fruit, apple pulp, and apple peel samples. Under the application of 2 °C 2.0 g/L, 2 °C 1.0 g/L, 20 °C 2.0 g/L, and 20 °C 1.0 g/L treatment, the half-life for the degradation of prochloraz was 57.8-86.6 d in the whole fruit and apple peel, and the prochloraz concentration in the apple pulp increased gradually until a peak (0.72 mg·kg-1) was reached. The concentration of 2,4,6-TCP was below 0.1 mg·kg-1 in four treatment conditions and not detected (<LOD) in apple pulp. Finally, based on the detection of market samples in Hefei (China), we believe that the residual level of prochloraz in apples meets the requirements of the Chinese standards.

Keywords: 2,4,6-trichlorophenol; apple; prochloraz; residue dynamics; risk assessment.

MeSH terms

  • Chlorophenols / analysis*
  • Chlorophenols / pharmacology
  • Fungicides, Industrial / analysis*
  • Fungicides, Industrial / pharmacology
  • Half-Life
  • Imidazoles / analysis*
  • Imidazoles / pharmacology
  • Malus / chemistry*
  • Malus / drug effects
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology
  • Temperature


  • Chlorophenols
  • Fungicides, Industrial
  • Imidazoles
  • Plant Extracts
  • prochloraz
  • 2,4,6-trichlorophenol