Maternal Early Pregnancy Plasma Concentration of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

Calcif Tissue Int. 2018 Mar;102(3):280-286. doi: 10.1007/s00223-017-0346-4. Epub 2017 Oct 22.


We examined whether 25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) D] concentrations, measured at the first prenatal visit, would be associated with risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). From July 2015 to June 2016, consecutive women who admitted to the two-obstetrics center in china were included. Relevant data were collected between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation, including fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 25(OH) D concentrations at the first prenatal visit and the one-step GDM screened with 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Blood from women at first prenatal visit was available for 827 women and 101 of them developed GDM (12.2%). The GDM distribution across the 25(OH) D quartiles ranged between 3.9% (fourth quartile, Q4) and 26.1% (first quartile, Q1). The median plasma concentration of 25(OH) D at first prenatal visit was significantly lower in women who developed GDM compared with those not developed (p < 0.001). In multivariate models comparing the 25(OH) D of Q1, second (Q2) and third quartiles (Q3) against the Q4, it observed that concentrations of 25(OH) D in Q1 and Q2 were associated with later developed GDM, and risk of GDM was increased by 240 and 48%, respectively. The women group with combined vitamin D deficiency and obesity had an OR of 4.66 [95% CI (2.91-8.15); p < 0.001] for GDM compared to those without vitamin D deficiency and obesity. Low 25(OH) D concentrations at the first prenatal visit were associated with increased risk of GDM and might be useful in identifying women at risk of GDM for performing early prevention strategies.

Keywords: 25-Hydroxyvitamin D; Association; Chinese; Gestational diabetes mellitus.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Blood Glucose / biosynthesis*
  • Calcifediol / blood*
  • Diabetes, Gestational / blood*
  • Female
  • Glucose Tolerance Test
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pregnancy
  • Risk Factors
  • Vitamin D / analogs & derivatives*
  • Vitamin D / blood
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / complications*
  • Young Adult


  • Blood Glucose
  • Vitamin D
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D
  • Calcifediol