Evidence-based treatment of neurogenic orthostatic hypotension and related symptoms

J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2017 Dec;124(12):1567-1605. doi: 10.1007/s00702-017-1791-y. Epub 2017 Oct 22.

Abstract

Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension, postprandial hypotension and exercise-induced hypotension are common features of cardiovascular autonomic failure. Despite the serious impact on patient's quality of life, evidence-based guidelines for non-pharmacological and pharmacological management are lacking at present. Here, we provide a systematic review of the literature on therapeutic options for neurogenic orthostatic hypotension and related symptoms with evidence-based recommendations according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). Patient's education and non-pharmacological measures remain essential, with strong recommendation for use of abdominal binders. Based on quality of evidence and safety issues, midodrine and droxidopa reach a strong recommendation level for pharmacological treatment of neurogenic orthostatic hypotension. In selected cases, a range of alternative agents can be considered (fludrocortisone, pyridostigmine, yohimbine, atomoxetine, fluoxetine, ergot alkaloids, ephedrine, phenylpropanolamine, octreotide, indomethacin, ibuprofen, caffeine, methylphenidate and desmopressin), though recommendation strength is weak and quality of evidence is low (atomoxetine, octreotide) or very low (fludrocortisone, pyridostigmine, yohimbine, fluoxetine, ergot alkaloids, ephedrine, phenylpropanolamine, indomethacin, ibuprofen, caffeine, methylphenidate and desmopressin). In case of severe postprandial hypotension, acarbose and octreotide are recommended (strong recommendation, moderate level of evidence). Alternatively, voglibose or caffeine, for which a weak recommendation is available, may be useful.

Keywords: Evidence-based treatment; Grade; Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension; Postprandial hypotension; Syncope.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Databases, Factual / statistics & numerical data
  • Evidence-Based Medicine*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypotension, Orthostatic / therapy*
  • Male

Supplementary concepts

  • Orthostatic Hypotensive Disorder, Streeten Type