Food intake has a great influence on blood glucose in patients with diabetes. This study was to determine the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) of a particular pomelo named Majia pomelo and its effects on postprandial glucose (PPG) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Twenty healthy subjects and 20 T2D patients (controlled on lifestyle measures and/or metformin) were tested on 2 separate days with 50 g of glucose and 50 g equivalent of carbohydrates from Majia pomelo for GI measurement. To test effects of Majia pomelo on PPG, 19 hospitalized T2D patients (controlled on insulin therapy) were selected for a 9-day study. The dose of insulin for each patient was adjusted on the first 3 days. A total of 100 mg Majia pomelo was consumed per meal in the last 3 tested days. Blood glucose was measured to evaluate the glycemic excursions. The GIs for Majia pomelo in healthy individuals and T2D patients were 78.34±1.88 and 72.15±1.95 respectively. The value of GL was as low as 4.23 in diabetic patients with serving size of 100 g pomelo, indicting Majia pomelo as a high GI but low GL fruit. Consumption of Majia pomelo in hospitalized T2D patients did not cause significant glucose fluctuation. It was concluded that high GI pomelo can serve as a low GL fruit if it is consumed with a limited daily amount and thus can be supplied to diabetic patients. These results may mean more varieties of food choices for T2D patients.
Keywords: glycemic index; glycemic load; pomelo; type 2 diabetes.