The role and regulators of extracellular vesicle (EV) secretion in hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury have not been defined. Rab27a is a guanosine triphosphatase known to control EV release. Interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) is a transcription factor that plays an important role in liver IR and regulates certain guanosine triphosphatases. However, the relationships among IRF-1, Rab27a, and EV secretion are largely unknown. Here, we show induction of IRF-1 and Rab27a both in vitro in hypoxic hepatocytes and in vivo in warm IR and orthotopic liver transplantation livers. Interferon γ stimulation, IRF-1 transduction, or IR promoted Rab27a expression and EV secretion. Meanwhile, silencing of IRF-1 decreased Rab27a expression and EV secretion. Rab27a silencing decreased EV secretion and liver IR injury. Ten putative IRF-1 binding motifs in the 1,692-bp Rab27a promoter region were identified. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assay verified five functional IRF-1 binding motifs, which were confirmed by a Rab27a promoter luciferase assay. IR-induced EVs contained higher oxidized phospholipids (OxPL). OxPLs on the EV surface activated neutrophils through the toll-like receptor 4 pathway. OxPL-neutralizing E06 antibody blocked the effect of EVs and decreased liver IR injury.
Conclusion: These findings provide a novel mechanism by which IRF-1 regulates Rab27a transcription and EV secretion, leading to OxPL activation of neutrophils and subsequent hepatic IR injury. (Hepatology 2018;67:1056-1070).
© 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.