Preventive Efficacy of Vanillic Acid on Regulation of Redox Homeostasis, Matrix Metalloproteinases and Cyclin D1 in Rats Bearing Endometrial Carcinoma

Indian J Clin Biochem. 2017 Oct;32(4):429-436. doi: 10.1007/s12291-016-0605-6. Epub 2016 Aug 24.


Endometrial carcinoma is a malignant tumor of the female genital tract. This study has been performed to evaluate the chemopreventive efficacy of vanillic acid (a bio flavonoid) on endometrial carcinoma (EC) by assessing the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), cytochrome P450, antioxidants-superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxides (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH), vitamins C and E, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and 9) and cell cycle check point protein (cyclin D1) in N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) induced carcinogenic rats. EC provoked by intravaginal detention of MNNG (150 mg/kg b.w. for 90 days), lead to enhancement of the levels of TBARS, LOOH, cytochrome P450, and decrement in the levels of antioxidants (SOD, CAT, GPx, GSH, vitamins C and E) and upregulated expression of MMP-2 and 9 and cyclin D1 (by western blot analysis). The treatment of vanillic acid (100 mg/kg b.w.) to MNNG treated rats (1) normalized the histopathological alterations, (2) reduced the levels of TBARS, LOOH and cytochrome P450 (3) increased the levels of antioxidants (SOD, CAT, GPx, GSH, vitamins C and E) in plasma and uterus and (4) down regulated the expression of MMP-2, 9 and cyclin D1. The effect of vanillic acid is more predominant in pre-treatment group than co-treated rats. Our results designate that vanillic acid inhibits the EC by elevating antioxidants and by regulating the levels of metalloproteinase and cell cycle check point protein.

Keywords: Cyclin D1; Endometrial cancer; MMP-2; MMP-9; MNNG; Vanillic acid.