Epidemiology of hepatitis B in pregnant Iranian women: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Arch Virol. 2018 Feb;163(2):319-330. doi: 10.1007/s00705-017-3551-6. Epub 2017 Oct 23.


Perinatal transmission is one of the most common routes of hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission. This study aims to identify the epidemiological features of HBV among pregnant Iranian women. This study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Two authors independently searched several online databases without time limit until May 2017. The databases include Magiran, Iranmedex, SID, Medlib, IranDoc, Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, Cochrane, Web of Science and Google Scholar. The data were analyzed based on a random-effects model using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software version 2. Thirty-seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. The prevalence of HBV among pregnant Iranian women was 1.18% (95% CI: 0.09%-1.53%). The prevalence of HBV among pregnant women living in urban and rural areas was 1.60% (95% CI: 0.06%-4.30%) and 1.70% (95% CI: 0.09%-3.2%), respectively. The prevalence of HBV among housewives and working pregnant women was 4.3% (95% CI: 1.4%-12.5%) and 1.2% (95% CI: 0.02%-5.8%), respectively. The risk of developing an HBV infection was significantly associated with illiteracy (p = 0.013), abortion (p = 0.001), blood transfusion (p < 0.001) and addicted spouse (p = 0.045). However, no significant relationship was observed between HBV infection and urbanization (p = 0.65), occupation (p = 0.37), history of surgery (p = 0.32) or tattooing (p = 0.69). Vaccination coverage (receiving at least a single dose) in pregnant women was 9.8% (95% CI: 5.3%-17.5%). The prevalence of HBV among pregnant women is lower than in the general population of Iran. HBV vaccination coverage was low among pregnant Iranian women. Therefore, health policy-makers are recommended to enforce immunization programs for HBV vaccination among high-risk pregnant women.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Female
  • Hepatitis B / epidemiology*
  • Hepatitis B / transmission
  • Hepatitis B / virology
  • Hepatitis B virus / classification
  • Hepatitis B virus / genetics
  • Hepatitis B virus / isolation & purification
  • Hepatitis B virus / physiology
  • Humans
  • Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
  • Iran / epidemiology
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications, Infectious / epidemiology*
  • Pregnancy Complications, Infectious / virology
  • Prevalence