Effect of menstrual cycle phase and hormonal treatments on evaluation of tubal patency in baboons

J Med Primatol. 2018 Feb;47(1):40-45. doi: 10.1111/jmp.12317. Epub 2017 Oct 24.


Background: We evaluated whether menstrual cycle phase influences the assessment of tubal patency by hysterosalpingography (HSG) in baboons.

Methods: Retrospective analysis of baseline tubal patency studies and serum estradiol (E2 ) and progesterone (P4) values obtained from female baboons used as models for development of non-surgical permanent contraception in women. The main outcome measure was bilateral tubal patency (BTP) in relationship with estradiol level.

Results: Female baboons (n = 110) underwent a single (n = 81), two (n = 26), or three (n = 3) HSG examinations. In 33/142 (23%) HSG examinations, one or both tubes showed functional occlusion (FO). The median E2 in studies with BTP (49 pg/mL) was significantly higher than in those studies with FO (32 pg/mL, P = .005). Among 18 animals with repeat examinations where serum E2 changed from <60 to ≥ 60 pg/mL, 13 results changed from FO to BTP (P = .0001). No sets showed a change from BTP to FO with an increase in estradiol.

Conclusion: In baboons, functional occlusion of the fallopian tube is associated with low estradiol levels, supporting a role for estrogen-mediated relaxation of the utero-tubal junction.

Keywords: baboon; estradiol; fallopian tubes; hysterosalpingography.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Estradiol / blood*
  • Fallopian Tubes / physiology*
  • Female
  • Hysterosalpingography / veterinary
  • Menstrual Cycle / physiology*
  • Papio anubis / physiology*
  • Papio hamadryas / physiology*
  • Progesterone / blood*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Vascular Patency / physiology*


  • Progesterone
  • Estradiol