Iatrogenic solid tumors following immunosuppressive therapy

Semin Diagn Pathol. 2018 Jul;35(4):272-278. doi: 10.1053/j.semdp.2017.09.002. Epub 2017 Sep 20.

Abstract

Immunosuppression induced by chronic medication, such as occurs post-transplantation, may increase a patient's risk of developing solid tumors. These are often rare tumors characterized by odd presentations. This review focuses on commonly encountered iatrogenic, non-hematopoietic solid tumors following immunotherapy and provides a practical approach to their diagnosis. All of the malignancies covered in this review are viral-induced. They include human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated carcinomas, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated tumors, Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV)-related Merkel cell carcinoma, and Human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV8)-related Kaposi sarcoma. The complementary diagnostic role of ancillary studies, such as immunohistochemistry and in-situ hybridization that target these oncogenic viruses, is addressed.

Keywords: Carcinoma; EBV; HHV8; HPV; Immunosuppression; Kaposi sarcoma; Merkel cell carcinoma; Oncogenic; Soft tissue; Transplant; Virus.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / diagnosis*
  • Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / pathology
  • Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / therapy
  • Herpesvirus 8, Human / isolation & purification*
  • Humans
  • Iatrogenic Disease
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Immunosuppression Therapy
  • Immunotherapy / adverse effects
  • In Situ Hybridization
  • Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification*
  • Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis*
  • Papillomavirus Infections / pathology
  • Papillomavirus Infections / therapy
  • Sarcoma, Kaposi / diagnosis*
  • Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology
  • Sarcoma, Kaposi / therapy
  • Soft Tissue Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology
  • Soft Tissue Neoplasms / therapy