Clinical profile of congenital rubella syndrome in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Pediatr Int. 2018 Feb;60(2):168-172. doi: 10.1111/ped.13444. Epub 2018 Jan 4.


Background: Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) has many severe neurological manifestations and other systemic consequences. Although various studies have been done in Indonesia, there are no conclusive results on CRS incidence. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the incidence, clinical manifestations and outcomes of CRS in Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

Methods: A descriptive study involving a review of congenital anomalies associated with CRS was carried out at Dr Sardjito Hospital, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, from July 2008 to June 2013. CRS was categorized according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification. This study involved children aged <1 year old, and was conducted at the outpatient clinic, pediatric and neonatology wards.

Results: A total of 201 children met the criteria for suspected CRS during the 5 year study. Of those patients, 6% were classified as having laboratory-confirmed CRS, 21.4% as having clinically compatible CRS, and 72.6% as having discarded CRS (i.e. a suspected case that does not meet the criteria for CRS). The estimated incidence of laboratory-confirmed CRS and laboratory-confirmed and clinically compatible CRS in Yogyakarta, Indonesia during the study period was 0.05:1,000 and 0.25:1,000 live births, respectively. Of the laboratory-confirmed CRS patients, 83.3% of children had congenital heart disease (CHD), 75% had hearing impairment, 66.7% had congenital cataract and 50% had microcephaly. Furthermore, none of the mothers was vaccinated against rubella.

Conclusions: The incidence of CRS in infants in Yogyakarta Indonesia is considered high, with most clinical manifestations being CHD, hearing impairment and congenital cataract. This emphasizes the necessity for epidemiological study of CRS in other hospitals and the importance of establishing a national rubella vaccination program in Indonesia.

Keywords: Indonesia; clinical profile; congenital rubella syndrome; retrospective study; vaccine program.

MeSH terms

  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Indonesia / epidemiology
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Pilot Projects
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications, Infectious / epidemiology
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Rubella Syndrome, Congenital / complications
  • Rubella Syndrome, Congenital / diagnosis
  • Rubella Syndrome, Congenital / epidemiology*