Purpose: Shared decision making (SDM) is a core competency in health policy and guidelines. Most U.S. internal medicine residencies lack an SDM education curriculum. A standardized patient (SP)-based curriculum teaching key concepts and skills of SDM was developed.
Method: This curriculum consisted of an innovative seven-step SDM model and a skills-focused SP case, integrated into the ambulatory rotation for senior medicine residents at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center in 2015. Evaluation consisted of pre/postcurriculum surveys assessing residents' knowledge of and attitudes toward SDM. Skills development was assessed via pre/postcurricular audio recordings of clinical decision making.
Results: Thirty-six residents completed the curriculum (survey participation rate 88%). There was significant improvement in residents' knowledge (median score pre 75%, post 100%, P < .01); confidence (median composite score pre 2.87, post 3.0, P < .01, where 1 = not confident/important, 4 = very confident/important); and importance of SDM (median composite score pre 3.14, post 3.5, P < .01). Forty-four clinical recordings (31 pre, 13 post) were assessed using the Observing Patient Involvement in Decision-Making scale. Improvement in use of SDM skills was seen among all residents (mean increase 1.84 points, P = .27). When data were stratified post hoc by U.S. versus international medical graduates, there was significant improvement in total score (mean increase of 5.15 points, P = .01) among U.S. graduates only.
Conclusions: SDM is teachable, and this skill-based curricular intervention resulted in improvement in senior medicine residents' knowledge of, attitudes toward, and demonstration of SDM skills.