Objective: To make scientifically sound and practical recommendations for daily sleep duration across the life span.
Methods: The National Sleep Foundation convened a multidisciplinary expert panel (Panel) with broad representation from leading stakeholder organizations. The Panel evaluated the latest scientific evidence and participated in a formal consensus and voting process. Then, the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to formulate sleep duration recommendations.
Results: The Panel made sleep duration recommendations for 9 age groups. Sleep duration ranges, expressed as hours of sleep per day, were designated as recommended, may be appropriate, or not recommended. Recommended sleep durations are as follows: 14-17 hours for newborns, 12-15 hours for infants, 11-14 hours for toddlers, 10-13 hours for preschoolers, 9-11 hours for school-aged children, and 8-10 hours for teenagers. Seven to 9 hours is recommended for young adults and adults, and 7-8 hours of sleep is recommended for older adults. The self-designated basis for duration selection and critical discussions are also provided.
Conclusions: Consensus for sleep duration recommendations was reached for specific age groupings. Consensus using a multidisciplinary expert Panel lends robust credibility to the results. Finally, limitations and caveats of these recommendations are discussed.
Keywords: Life span sleep; National Sleep Foundation; RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method; Sleep adequacy; Sleep by age; Sleep duration; Sleep need; Sleep sufficiency; Sleep time recommendations.
Copyright © 2015 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.