Milk and other dairy foods and risk of hip fracture in men and women

Osteoporos Int. 2018 Feb;29(2):385-396. doi: 10.1007/s00198-017-4285-8. Epub 2017 Oct 27.


The role of dairy foods for hip fracture prevention remains controversial. In this study, among US men and women, a glass of milk per day was associated with an 8% lower risk of hip fracture. This contrasts with a reported increased risk with higher milk intake in Swedish women.

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to examine whether higher milk and dairy food consumption are associated with risk of hip fracture in older adults following a report of an increased risk for milk in Swedish women.

Methods: In two US cohorts, 80,600 postmenopausal women and 43,306 men over 50 years of age were followed for up to 32 years. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate the relative risks (RR) of hip fracture per daily serving of milk (240 mL) and other dairy foods that were assessed every 4 years, controlling for other dietary intakes, BMI, height, smoking, activity, medications, and disease diagnoses.

Results: Two thousand one hundred thirty-eight incident hip fractures were identified in women and 694 in men. Each serving of milk per day was associated with a significant 8% lower risk of hip fracture in men and women combined (RR = 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87 to 0.97). A suggestive inverse association was found for cheese in women only (RR = 0.91, CI 0.81 to 1.02). Yogurt consumption was low and not associated with risk. Total dairy food intake, of which milk contributed about half, was associated with a significant 6% lower risk of hip fracture per daily serving in men and women (RR = 0.94, CI 0.90 to 0.98). Calcium, vitamin D, and protein from non-dairy sources did not modify the association between milk and hip fracture, nor was it explained by contributions of these nutrients from milk.

Conclusions: In this group of older US adults, higher milk consumption was associated with a lower risk of hip fracture.

Keywords: Cohort; Dairy; Hip fracture; Men; Milk; Women.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Animals
  • Dairy Products / statistics & numerical data*
  • Diet / statistics & numerical data
  • Diet Surveys
  • Dietary Supplements / statistics & numerical data
  • Feeding Behavior*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Hip Fractures / epidemiology
  • Hip Fractures / prevention & control*
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Milk / statistics & numerical data
  • Osteoporotic Fractures / epidemiology
  • Osteoporotic Fractures / prevention & control*
  • Risk Assessment / methods
  • Sex Factors
  • United States / epidemiology