The Role of Toll-Like Receptors and Vitamin D in Cardiovascular Diseases-A Review

Int J Mol Sci. 2017 Oct 27;18(11):2252. doi: 10.3390/ijms18112252.


Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Therefore, a better understanding of their pathomechanisms and the subsequent implementation of optimal prophylactic and therapeutic strategies are of utmost importance. A growing body of evidence states that low-grade inflammation is a common feature for most of the cardiovascular diseases in which the contributing factors are the activation of toll-like receptors (TLRs) and vitamin D deficiency. In this article, available data concerning the association of cardiovascular diseases with TLRs and vitamin D status are reviewed, followed by a discussion of new possible approaches to cardiovascular disease management.

Keywords: atherosclerosis; cardiovascular diseases; inflammation; toll-like receptors; vitamin D.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adaptive Immunity
  • Animals
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / metabolism*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / pathology
  • Comorbidity
  • Disease Susceptibility
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate
  • Risk Factors
  • Toll-Like Receptors / metabolism*
  • Vitamin D / metabolism*


  • Toll-Like Receptors
  • Vitamin D